Mineral Resources in Jordan

Oil Shale 
Oil Shale refers to sedimentary rocks mostly carbonates to chalk marl and shale contains immature organic matter that when it is heated to above 500°C, it produces oil and gas. 
The Jordanian oil shale is naturally bituminous marls of varying shade of brown, grey or black. The investigation of the potential of bituminous rocks, as a possible source for producing oil by retorting or for generating electricity by direct combustion is of first priority for Jordan.

Basalt in Jordan is part of the North Arabian Basaltic Plateau and covers an area of about 11,000 km2 in the northeast of Jordan and extends northwest into Syria and southeast into Saudi Arabia. Meanwhile, a group of small continental volcanic rocks are present in Central Jordan. Basalt can be used in many industrial applications such as: rock wool, Pipes, moulds, and as construction materials.

Pure Limestone 
Pure limestone is among the most important non-metallic raw material used for industrial and agricultural purposes. It should have the following criteria: CaCO3 > 93%, SiO2 < 3%, MgO < 1.2% (and higher for certain products), Fe2O3 < 1.5 (and lower for certain products), S, P2O5 and alkaline salts as low as possible.

Gypsum is one of the non-metallic minerals, composed mainly of hydrated calcium sulfate. It is usually formed by precipitation of CaSO4.2H2O due to evaporation of solution with high content of SO4-2 and Ca+2 ions. Gypsum occurs associated with varying amount of carbonates, clays and other impurities. Naturally it can be found at many forms such as: selenite, satin spar (fibrous), gypsite and massive gypsum. Gypsum is used mainly for cement industry, building construction, chemical, medical and industries and ceramics.


Silica Sand 
Silica sand is defined as a high purity industrial mineral in which the sand grains are made entirely of quartz. Impurities are very minor and commonly are clay minerals (kaolinite, illite), titaniferous minerals, iron oxides and heavy minerals. The term silica sand is applied to quartz sand that conforms to the specifications of which the main composition is SiO2 >99%, with very little contaminant contents and heavy minerals of <0.1%.

The first discovery of copper mineralization in Jordan was in the Fifties of the 20th century in Wadi Dana/ Wadi Araba area. In ancient times, there were many mining activities for extracting copper as indicated by the slags and old mines in Khirbet El-Nahas, Wadi Jaryia and other localities.

Feldspar is the most important single group of rock forming silicate minerals. There are four chemically district groups of feldspar; potassium feldspar (KAlSi3O3), sodium feldspar (NaAlSi3O8), calcium feldspar (CaAlSi3O8) and barium feldspar (BaAl2Si3O8). About 90% of produced feldspar is used for glass and ceramic industries. Soda feldspar is preferred in glass manufacture, but potash feldspar is more popular for ceramics.